Was there never a beginning to the universe?
The standard cosmological model (the so-called harmony) has a past singularity. This individuality represents a moment of time that marks the beginning of time itself (and the universe), although individuality is not part of the universe itself.
There are alternative models in which the universe has no beginning. For example, the bounce or circle model, in which the current expansion phase of the universe preceded the contraction phase, and the universe would have contracted and expanded forever.
In the beginning, it was there; well, maybe there was no beginning. Perhaps our universe has always existed — and a new theory of quantum gravity shows how it can work.
“Reality has so many things that most people would associate with sci-fi or even fantasy,” said Bruno Bento
In his work, he used a new theory of quantum gravity, called the causal set theory, in which space and time are divided into separate parts of space-time. According to this theory, at some level, space is a basic unit of time. Bento and his collaborators used this causal-set approach to explore the beginning of the universe. They found that it’s possible that the universe had no beginning — that it has always existed into the infinite past and only recently evolved into what we call the Big Bang.