Universe is expanding faster than expected Why ?

Universe is expanding faster than expected

Using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers discovered that the universe is expanding at an estimated five to nine percent faster.

According to Adam Race, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute and Johns Hopkins University, in Baltimore, Maryland, this amazing discovery could be an important clue to understanding the mysterious parts of the universe that make up everything 95% of which do not emit light, such as dark energy, dark matter, and dark radiation.

“Amazing discovery could be an important clue to understanding the mysterious parts of the universe that make up 95% of everything and do not emit light.” Riess says

The discovery was made by Riess’ team to reduce the current uncertainty in the current expansion rate of the universe by only 2.4%, which was previously unknown. Researchers have developed new methods of calculating distances to improve the accuracy of distance between distant galaxies.

Researchers were looking for Cepheid stars and type Ia supernova, among other things. Accurate measurement of the distance from the Cepheid star can be obtained by comparing the actual brightness of the star and its apparent brightness visible from the earth. Type Ia supernovae are used by astronomers as a common cosmic yardstick because they are exploding stars that emit the same amount of light but can be seen from a greater distance than a type II supernova.

For the first time, they were able to accurately estimate the true brightness of Cepheid stars in 19 galaxies, and for the first time they were able to determine the distances of about 300 types of Ia supernovae in distant galaxies.

To make a comparison, the researchers looked at how light from distant galaxies spreads as it travels away from Earth. The team compared those distances with the expansion of space as measured by the stretching of light from receding galaxies. The team used these two values to calculate how fast the universe expands with time, or the Hubble constant.

Hubble Constant has been revised to 73.2 kilometers per second per megaparsec, which is a new value. One megaparsec is the distance between three and a half million light years (MP). As predicted by a review of previous calculations, the distance between celestial bodies will double in 9.8 billion years.

In contrast, according to a recently revised calibration, the rate of expansion of the universe does not match the speed predicted immediately after the Big Bang, as previously thought. The WMAP and Planck satellite missions estimate that their observations will reduce Hubble’s permanent rating by 5% and 9%, respectively.

If we knew that everything in the universe, including dark energy and dark matter, existed at the time of the Big Bang, and that we understood the physics behind it, we would use this knowledge to estimate and can see how fast the universe should expand now. Because of this contradiction, it is possible that our current understanding of the Hubble permanence is wrong.

According to Riess, comparing the rate of expansion of the universe with WMAP, Planck and Hubble was tantamount to building a bridge. On the far shore are observations of the cosmic microwave background of the early universe. There are measurements made by the Riess team using Hubble on a nearby beach.Using a simple example, Riess notes that

“you start with two ends and expect all your drawings and proportions to match in the middle.”

“We want to find out why the spectrum is no longer in the middle,” the group said.

There are various assumptions as to why the universe travels so fast. Perhaps the dark energy, which has already demonstrated the acceleration of the universe, is putting even more pressure on galaxies as they separate from each other.

Others suggest the existence of a subatomic particle that travels at the speed of light in the early universe, as well as other hypotheses. The term “black radiation” refers to a class of particles that are extremely fast, such as neutrinos. Additional energy may be added to the universe so that the best efforts to estimate today’s growth rate at the pace of the universe after the Big Bang will move away from the dark rays.

The increase in speed may cause black matter to exhibit some unexpected properties, which may lead to its discovery in the future. Dark matter, which is the basic part of the universe as we know it today, serves as the basis for the formation of galaxies.

According to astronomers, the speed of the universe may indicate to them that Einstein’s theory of gravity is wrong.

According to Lucas Macri of the University of Texas A&M at College Station, in light of our limited understanding of the dark elements of the universe, it is important to determine how they push and pull space in cosmic time.

The Hubble Space Telescope is still being used by the SH0ES team to increase Hubble Permanent Accuracy by 1%. Future generations of telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), which will be an infrared observatory, and the Widefield Infrared Space Telescope (WFIRST), which will be an infrared observatory, will also help astronomers better understand the rate of expansion of galaxies throughout the universe.

Prior to the deployment of the Hubble Space Telescope in 1990, Hubble was replaced by a permanent two element. By reducing the value of the Hubble constant to 10% of its original value, Hubble’s primary project on extragalactic distance scale, completed in the late 1990s, met one of the most important goals of the telescope. The work of the SH0ES team has resulted in a 76% reduction in uncertainty at Hubble Permanent since its inception in 2005.

Original Story: https://www.astronomy.com/news/2016/06/nasas-hubble-finds-universe-is-expanding-faster-than-expected



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